Nepal is a landlocked country with a total land area of 147,181 sq. km. It lies between 26º 22′ N – 30º 27′ N latitude and 80º 4’E – 88º 12’E longitude. Roughly rectangular in shape, the land extends approximately 885-km-east-west and 145 km. The country is bordered by China in the north and India in the south, west, and east.

The landmass is divided into three geographical zones. The snow-capped the high Himalayas, the mountainous region with long terraced slopes leading to fertile valleys and the flat sub-tropical Terai region. The high Himalayan region extends in the north from west to east at an altitude of 4,000 m. to 8,848 m. The world-famous peak of Mt. Everest (8848 m.), Kanchanjunga (8586m), Makalu (8463m.), Dhaulagiri (8167m.) Annapurna (8091m.) and many others dominate the formidable range of everlasting snows. The alpine region consists of mountain ranges of Mahabharata varying in height from 1525 m. to 4877m. Below these ranges lies the Churia range at 610 m. to 1524-m. Fertile valleys of various width and altitude lie between these mountain and hill ranges. The southern belt stretches east to west by a width of 26 to 32 km. and a maximum elevation of about 305 meters.

Several major rivers, tributaries, and streams flow southwards originating from the glaciers, snow-fed lakes and high Himalayan Mountains of the north. The major rivers are the Mahakali, Seti, Karnali, Gandaki, Koshi, and Mechi.